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Orthopedics And Traumatology

Orthopedics and Traumatology is one of the branches that have been obtained in the fastest way provided by technology and scientific advances, and even increased in scope. 


  • What is Orthopedics and Traumatology?

  • What Diseases Does Orthopedics and Traumatology Treat?

  • What are the Diagnostic Methods Used in Orthopedics and Traumatology?

  • What are the Treatment Methods Applied in Orthopedics and Traumatology?

  • Frequently Asked Questions About the Departments of Orthopedics and Traumatology

What is Orthopedics and Traumatology?

The Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology deals with congenital and emerging diseases in the musculoskeletal system.

What Diseases Does Orthopedics and Traumatology Treat?

The most common diseases that are treated by the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department can be listed as follows:

  • Bone fractures

  • Neck hernias

  • Waist hernias

  • Leg lenght inequality

  • Congenital hip dislocations

  • Meniscus injuries

  • Joint pains

  • Rheumatisms

  • Nerve compressions

  • Sprains and crush ligaments in the joints

  • Trigger finger disease

  • Joint calcifications

  • Heel spur

  • Cartilage injuries

  • Tennis elbow

  • Life breakouts

  • Bone inflammations

  • Sciatica

  • Dislocations on other joints

The subspecialities of the Orthopedics and Traumatology department can be listed as follows;

  • Arthroplasty surgery (joint prostheses)

  • Sports traumatology

  • Lengthening and leg inequalities

  • Pediatric orthopedics and traumatology

  • Hand surgery and microsurgery

  • Knee surgery and arthroscopic surgery

  • Shoulder and elbow surgery

  • Orthopedic oncology

  • Foot and ankle surgery

  • Bone Inflammation (Osteomyelitis) treatment

What are the Diagnostic Methods Used in Orthopedics and Traumatology?

It can benefit from various radiological imaging and blood tests related to orthopedics and traumatology diseases. Diagnostic methods used in orthopedics and traumatology diseases can be listed as follows:

  • X-ray

  • Computed Tomography (CT)

  • Magnetic Resonance (MR)

  • Arthrography MRI

  • Bone scan

  • Discography

  • Doppler Ultrasound

  • Dual Photon Absorptiometry

  • Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

  • Electromyography

  • Blood test

What are the Treatment Methods Applied in Orthopedics and Traumatology?

Treatment methods used in orthopedics and traumatology can be listed as follows?

  • Arthroplasty surgery (joint prostheses)

  • Robotic prosthetic surgery

  • Knee arthroplasty

  • Hip replacement

  • Half knee replacement

  • Sports traumatology

  • Pediatric orthopedics and traumatology

  • Hand surgery and microsurgery

  • Lengthening and leg inequalities

  • Shoulder and elbow surgery

  • Orthopedic oncology

  • Foot and ankle surgery

  • Stem cell therapy

Arthroscopic Surgery

Arthroscopy is a method that provides the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries in the joints by using fiberoptic devices and visually examining the inside of the attachments. Arthroscopy is done with a few small skin incisions and causes very little scarring and pain, but a rapid recovery is observed until open surgery. The operation takes about 1 hour and the patient is discharged a few hours after the operation. After the operation, the patient can step on his feet and drive 3 days later. There is no need to remove the suture as it is thrown with soluble material. In a wide range from professional athletes to housewives; knee-shoulder-hand and ankle arthroscopies, ligament-cartilage-meniscus-tendon operations, cartilage transplants are successfully applied using modern surgical techniques.

Sports Traumatology

Sports is an effort to increase the organic resistance in the body, develop the resources of the systems, protect and maintain this capacity. However, not making enough preparation before starting the sport takes injuries with it. Knee joints take the first place among the regions exposed to sports trauma with 32.9%. After the knee joints, the most injuries during sports; It can be seen in the foot body, hip and groin region, shoulder joint, foot neck region, spine, elbow joint, wrist and hand. Emergency diagnosis and treatment of all sports injuries are done in the Department of Sports Traumatology.

Length Extension and Leg Inequalities

Crooked legs, functional disorders caused by inequality between the legs, and short stature are orthopedic problems that can be treated with the Ilizarov method today. Shortness compensation can be equated with shortening the long leg and lengthening the short leg. The Ilizarav method is also successfully applied in the treatment of soft tissue loss, curvatures and shortnesses caused by nonunion in bone fractures.

What is the Ilizarov Method?

“Distraction osteogenesis”, which is defined by Ilizarov, one of the revolutions of orthopedic science in the 20th century, that is, the technique of creating new bone by stretching the repair tissue between the broken bone ends, and the lengthening, restructuring of bone cavities and nonunion treatment that emerged with this concept are the main solution methods used in orthopedic surgery today. With the tool called Ilizarov external fixator, acute shortening of the nonunion area and lengthening from the other area in the same bone are performed together with the applications of creating new bone by stretching the tissue that helps the repair. With the Ilizarov method, the union is performed without limiting the daily activities of the patient, the joint functions are preserved, and the length is restored by correcting the curvature. Thanks to this technique, other structural and functional disorders such as closure of bone cavities and infection that may cause disability in the patient are eliminated, and shortness is also compensated.

Which Diseases Is The Ilizarov Method Used For?

  • Closed and open fractures

  • Non-union fractures

  • In the treatment of bone lengthening (lengthening, sequelae of polio, post-traumatic, post-infection, shortness due to premature closure of growth cartilage and leg length inequalities)

  • Correction of arm and leg curvatures

  • Bone loss (usually occurs after tumor, trauma or infection)

  • Untreated developmental hip dislocation

  • Foot diseases,

  • Bone infections

  • Joint movement limitations

  • Metabolic diseases

  • Structural bone deformity

Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology

The follow-up and treatment of gait disorders, foot problems, congenital deformities, shortnesses, developmental hip dysplasia and spine disorders are carried out by orthopedic specialists experienced in these subjects.

Hand Surgery and Microsurgery

Thanks to the microsurgical technique, vessels and nerves smaller than 1 mm in diameter can be operated using needles and threads that are difficult to see with the naked eye. Like this; Organs such as severed hands, arms, feet and legs can be replaced, and by repairing very thin nerve fibers, the replaced limb can feel and move again. The best evaluation of your problems such as acute soft tissue traumas (vessel, tendon and nerve cuts, skin and muscle tissue losses and amputations caused by crushing and compression), hand and wrist pain, trigger finger, nerve compressions, tennis elbow, ganglion cysts, diagnosis and treatment.

Knee Surgery and Arthroscopic Surgery

Knees are exposed to more load than other joints. Not making preparations before starting the sports and forcing the knees excessively during sports cause damage to the cartilage tissue, tear in the meniscus, rupture in the ligaments and impair the health of the knee. Injuries of structures such as meniscus, anterior cruciate ligament, articular cartilage, capsule in the knee joint, intra-articular inflammation called septic arthritis, synovitis, thickening of the joint membrane, moderate knee joint calcification, intra-articular fractures are treated with arthroscopic surgery.


Fast and good results in very common injuries are only possible with modern and effective treatment methods. 

Functional fixation technique: Instead of classical hard and long casting in cases that do not require surgery; It is a new casting technique that is shorter, semi-rigid, allows early weight-bearing and muscle function. The plasters used here; It does not cause itching or allergies, and it also allows you to easily take a bath or even enter the sea-pool.

Bone stimulators: Especially in stress fractures and small bone fractures, the bone healing time is shortened by half with ultrasonic waves.

Closed intramedullary nailing techniques: These are the techniques that are applied in most of the long bone fractures (simple-compartmental) and hip fractures in the legs and arms, without opening the fracture line, through incisions of 2-3 cm and shortening the fracture healing time.

Minor interventional operations performed with arthroscopic assistance: In some of the intra-articular fractures, the fractures are detected without opening the joint; are techniques that shorten the time to reach the function.

Prosthetic surgery: These are the applications that give the elderly the chance to apply to more of the hip and shoulder fracture types, and provide the opportunity to walk the next day with the new prosthesis designs.


Radical major surgeries: Developing fixation materials and surgical techniques; It has brought the opportunity to obtain successful results in cases where treatment options were limited in the past, such as large pelvis (pelvis) fractures and comminuted fractures in large joints.

Bone Tumors Surgery

Bone tumors are seen as one in a million among orthopedic disorders. Malignant soft tissue and bone tumors, which are more common in men and approximately 100 new cases are detected every year in Turkey, occur most frequently with the effect of genetic factors, although the exact cause is unknown.


The most common type of bone cancer in the bone is called Osteosarcoma. Soft tissue tumors occur 2-3 times more often than bone tumors. Bone cancer, which mostly occurs in the bones of the legs and arms, is frequently seen in the parts of the leg and thigh bone close to the knee and the arm close to the shoulder joint. Rarely, bone cancer can also be found in different bones such as the hipbone (pelvis), scapula or jaw. Bone tumor may not be noticed initially. It usually comes out with the complaint of bone pain, which is ordinary but does not go away for a long time. It can cause swelling, especially in the bones just under the skin, such as the shinbone and ribs. In some cases, it manifests itself with bone fractures.


In most cases, malignant (cancerous) bone tumors must be surgically removed. It is often used in conjunction with surgery, radiation, and chemical treatments to reduce the risk of the cancer spreading or returning. This approach is called limb salvage surgery. Surgery is needed to remove part of the cancerous bone, but sometimes amputation can occur. But it is usually possible to regenerate or replace the removed bone.

Soft Tissue Cancer Surgery

Soft tissue cancer is seen in muscle, adipose tissue, connective tissue, veins and nerves. Since soft tissue is found throughout the body, tumors can occur anywhere in the body. As the tumor grows in soft tissue, it can cause swelling or lumps. Later, if it puts pressure on nerves and muscles, it can cause pain. Genetic transmission, long-term failure of the lymphatic system, exposure to chemicals such as vinyl chloride and arsenic, and traumas can be counted among the factors that cause the disease.


Biopsy is of great importance in terms of definitive diagnosis, staging of the tumor and planning of treatment. Biopsy can be performed directly or with ultrasound, and in some difficult areas, it is performed by taking a sample with a CT-guided special biopsy needle. Soft tissue sarcomas are examined in four stages according to their appearance and the way they spread in the body. Stages 1 and 2 are local. In stage 3, the tumor has spread to nearby lymph nodes, and in stage 4, it means the body has spread. Pet-CT is an invaluable study in staging.


Since the tumor is often located in the arms and legs, the intervention of the orthopedic oncologist should be expected. However, in tumors in and around the head-neck, chest and abdomen-pelvis; General surgery, thoracic surgery, plastic surgery and vascular surgery specialists make significant contributions to teamwork. The benefit of radiotherapy is important in stopping the growth of the tumor. Early diagnosis, teamwork and treatment with physicians experienced in orthopedic oncology are of great importance in the treatment of soft tissue tumors.

Robotic Orthopedic Surgery

One of the topics that have come to the fore in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology recently is robotic orthopedic surgery or robotic prosthesis surgery. Thanks to the robotic arm supported orthopedic surgery system, many orthopedic surgeries are now performed more comfortably. Today, hip, half knee prosthesis and knee cap prosthesis surgeries can be performed with robot technology with significant advantages for both the surgeon and the patient. It is stated that this technology will also be used in shoulder, spine and tumor surgeries in the future. Thanks to these applications, the recovery time of the patient is shortened after orthopedic surgeries, the possibility of pain and blood loss is reduced, and prostheses can be used for many years.


What does pediatric orthopedics mean?

Pediatric orthopedics deals with the treatment of children's joint, muscle and bone disorders. Pediatric orthopedics serves children from infants to teenagers. Because children's bodies are still growing, they have a very different joint, muscle and bone structure than adults. Usually, children are referred by their pediatrician to a pediatric orthopedist if problems arise.

Which section should be managed for fractures and cracks?

Fractures and cracks are usually experienced after traumas, but they can also occur as a result of different ailments. For the treatment of fractures and cracks in the bones, it is necessary to go to the doctors of the orthopedics and traumatology department.

How is a cruciate ligament rupture treated?

Treatment of cruciate ligament rupture may differ depending on the degree of rupture. To alleviate the pain experienced; Methods such as rest, cold application and bandage may be beneficial. Cruciate ligament injuries can also be partially treated with physical therapy exercises. However, surgical methods come into play for professional athletes or people who have an active life. The treatment of people who have tears in more than one ligament and have limitations in their movements is cruciate ligament tear surgery.

In which diseases is hip prosthesis used?

Hip replacement surgery is usually required when the hip joint is worn or damaged, with reduced mobility and pain even at rest. The most common reason for hip replacement surgery is osteoarthritis. Other conditions that can cause hip joint damage include:

  • Rheumatic joint inflammation

  • Hip fracture

  • Septic arthritis

  • Disorders that cause unusual bone growth (Bone dysplasias)

What is the recovery process after orthopedic surgeries?

Orthopedic surgeries can be performed in different parts of the body such as hands, feet, shoulders, knees and spine. Therefore, each surgery has its own characteristics. In general, it is important to stay away from the movements prohibited by the doctor after the surgery. When deemed necessary, physical therapy or rehabilitation treatments should not be interrupted and nutrition should be taken care of. One should not be careful about traumas that may occur after orthopedic surgeries.

What are the causes of meniscus tears?

Orthopedic surgeries can be performed in different parts of the body such as hands, feet, shoulders, knees and spine. Therefore, each surgery has its own characteristics. In general, it is important to stay away from the movements prohibited by the doctor after the surgery. When deemed necessary, physical therapy or rehabilitation treatments should not be interrupted and nutrition should be taken care of. One should not be careful about traumas that may occur after orthopedic surgeries. Meniscus tears can be torn during sports activities that can cause the knee to bend and turn suddenly. Football, tennis, basketball sports can pose a risk for meniscus tears. It should not be forgotten that obesity can also lead to meniscal tears.

Is hand and foot surgeries performed by a separate department?

Hand surgery has a special place as a separate subspecialty. Bone, muscle, tendon, vessel, nerve, defects, traumas, congenital deficiencies, benign and malignant tumors, arthroscopic closed joint interventions, all joint prostheses, including microsurgical procedures, and non-surgical treatments such as plaster splinting and rehabilitation. dominates the area.

What does an orthopedic and traumatology doctor look for?

An orthopedic and traumatology doctor diagnoses and deals with musculoskeletal disorders, including bones and joints, structures that allow movement such as ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.

Orthopedics and traumatology or physical therapy?

Depending on the disease and the degree of the disease, which treatment method will be applied may differ. In some diseases, physical therapy methods are applied first after orthopedic and traumatology surgeries, while in others it may be the opposite. It is important to act in an organized manner with physical therapy and rehabilitation doctors in most of the diseases of orthopedics and traumatology department.

Does an orthopedic surgeon perform surgery?

The Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology deals with the diseases of the musculoskeletal system from birth and later on. In the treatment of these diseases, different treatment methods can be applied, including surgery.

Does the orthopedic doctor want a blood test?

Imaging methods usually come to the fore in the diagnosis of orthopedics and traumatology department diseases. However, blood tests may also be requested in order to make the differential diagnosis of some disorders.

Questions about appointments?

You'll find answers to questions about the appointments process, scheduling, referrals and more.

See Frequently Asked Questions here.

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